Django的运行是基于python的环境,加上django包。在docker中运行django,实现方式是从docker下载python镜像,然后安装django运行所依赖的包。

https://store.docker.com/images/python?tab=description 中介绍pull镜像方式有一种叫python:onbuild。
这种镜像创建方式根据项目中提供的requirements.txt文件自动pip安装依赖包。大多数情况,通过python:onbuild能创建一个满足工程所需的独立镜像。

一、编写requirements.txt

下述的目录结构是一个Django Rest Framework例子,其中项目名称为restful,app名称为api。

首先我们需要把项目所依赖的包放到requirements.txt中:

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Django==1.8
django-bootstrap-toolkit==2.15.0
django-filter==1.0.1
djangorestframework==3.5.4
djangorestframework-jwt==1.10.0
pandas==0.19.2
SQLAlchemy==1.1.4
MySQL-python==1.2.5

二、编写Dockerfile

本文是基于python2.7制作的,Dockerfile文件如下:

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FROM python:2-onbuild
CMD [ "python", "./manage.py", "runserver", "0.0.0.0:8000"]

CMD命令执行Django启动程序,0.0.0.0是对所有IP开放,监听端口8000。
需要说明的是CMD中的每个参数得单独分开,像这样”runserver 0.0.0.0:8000”是运行不成功的。

2.1 pip 国内镜像

先创建pip.conf文件,使用阿里云作为镜像:

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[global]
index-url = http://mirrors.aliyun.com/pypi/simple/
[install]
trusted-host=mirrors.aliyun.com

在创建Dockerfile:

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FROM python:3.5
RUN mkdir -p /usr/src/app
WORKDIR /usr/src/app
COPY pip.conf /root/.pip/pip.conf
COPY requirements.txt /usr/src/app/
RUN pip install -r /usr/src/app/requirements.txt
RUN rm -rf /usr/src/app
COPY . /usr/src/app
CMD [ "python", "./manage.py", "runserver", "0.0.0.0:8091"]

三、构建镜像

  • $ docker build -t my-python-app .
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    [cbb@number_api]$ docker build -t number_api_django:0.3 .
    Sending build context to Docker daemon 655.9 kB
    Step 1/2 : FROM python:2-onbuild
    # Executing 3 build triggers...
    Step 1/1 : COPY requirements.txt /usr/src/app/
    Step 1/1 : RUN pip install --no-cache-dir -r requirements.txt
    ---> Running in 4711187b3011
    Collecting Django==1.8 (from -r requirements.txt (line 2))
    Downloading Django-1.8-py2.py3-none-any.whl (6.2MB)
    Collecting django-bootstrap-toolkit==2.15.0 (from -r requirements.txt (line 3))
    Downloading django-bootstrap-toolkit-2.15.0.tar.gz
    Collecting django-filter==1.0.1 (from -r requirements.txt (line 4))
    Downloading django_filter-1.0.1-py2.py3-none-any.whl (54kB)
    Collecting djangorestframework==3.5.4 (from -r requirements.txt (line 5))
    Downloading djangorestframework-3.5.4-py2.py3-none-any.whl (709kB)
    Collecting djangorestframework-jwt==1.10.0 (from -r requirements.txt (line 6))
    Downloading djangorestframework_jwt-1.10.0-py2.py3-none-any.whl
    Collecting pandas==0.19.2 (from -r requirements.txt (line 7))
    Downloading pandas-0.19.2-cp27-cp27mu-manylinux1_x86_64.whl (17.2MB)
    Collecting SQLAlchemy==1.1.4 (from -r requirements.txt (line 8))
    Downloading SQLAlchemy-1.1.4.tar.gz (5.1MB)
    Collecting MySQL-python==1.2.5 (from -r requirements.txt (line 9))
    Downloading MySQL-python-1.2.5.zip (108kB)
    Collecting PyJWT<2.0.0,>=1.4.0 (from djangorestframework-jwt==1.10.0->-r requirements.txt (line 6))
    Downloading PyJWT-1.4.2-py2.py3-none-any.whl
    Collecting pytz>=2011k (from pandas==0.19.2->-r requirements.txt (line 7))
    Downloading pytz-2016.10-py2.py3-none-any.whl (483kB)
    Collecting numpy>=1.7.0 (from pandas==0.19.2->-r requirements.txt (line 7))
    Downloading numpy-1.12.1-cp27-cp27mu-manylinux1_x86_64.whl (16.5MB)
    Collecting python-dateutil (from pandas==0.19.2->-r requirements.txt (line 7))
    Downloading python_dateutil-2.6.0-py2.py3-none-any.whl (194kB)
    Requirement already satisfied: six>=1.5 in /usr/local/lib/python2.7/site-packages (from python-dateutil->pandas==0.19.2->-r requirements.txt (line 7))
    Installing collected packages: Django, django-bootstrap-toolkit, django-filter, djangorestframework, PyJWT, djangorestframework-jwt, pytz, numpy, python-dateutil, pandas, SQLAlchemy, MySQL-python
    Running setup.py install for django-bootstrap-toolkit: started
    Running setup.py install for django-bootstrap-toolkit: finished with status 'done'
    Running setup.py install for SQLAlchemy: started
    Running setup.py install for SQLAlchemy: finished with status 'done'
    Running setup.py install for MySQL-python: started
    Running setup.py install for MySQL-python: finished with status 'done'
    Successfully installed Django-1.8 MySQL-python-1.2.5 PyJWT-1.4.2 SQLAlchemy-1.1.4 django-bootstrap-toolkit-2.15.0 django-filter-1.0.1 djangorestframework-3.5.4 djangorestframework-jwt-1.10.0 numpy-1.12.1 pandas-0.19.2 python-dateutil-2.6.0 pytz-2016.10
    Step 1/1 : COPY . /usr/src/app
    ---> 712a54b6b923
    Removing intermediate container df33c056f7c0
    Removing intermediate container 4711187b3011
    Removing intermediate container 6220af43bf96
    Step 2/2 : CMD python ./manage.py runserver 0.0.0.0:8000
    ---> Running in 53c0cf32d840
    ---> 17c97bc704d9
    Removing intermediate container 53c0cf32d840
    Successfully built 17c97bc704d9
    [cbb@number_api]$ docker images
    REPOSITORY TAG IMAGE ID CREATED SIZE
    number_api_django 0.3 17c97bc704d9 23 seconds ago 868 MB

这样就成功创建了镜像number_api_django:0.3

四、运行容器

  • docker run
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    [cbb@number_api]$ docker run -it --rm -p 8080:8000 --name api1 number_api_django:0.3
    Performing system checks...
    System check identified no issues (0 silenced).
    March 30, 2017 - 07:34:03
    Django version 1.8, using settings 'restful.settings'
    Starting development server at http://0.0.0.0:8000/
    Quit the server with CONTROL-C.

这样就启动了django程序。